Water is recognized as a scared source from generations and is been considered as a vital resource of survival. Water is also considered as one of the Pancha Maha-Bhoota (five fundamental physical elements in nature) according to Sanskrit. From the regular chores like cooking, cleaning, gardening to performing religious rituals, water is rated as a fundamental resource. Water is the key survival element of all living organisms. This main requisite of living is in threat of depletion and is also being polluted by various factors present in the environment. The process in which water becomes overly enriched with nutrients, encouraging the growth of excessive plant life is known as Eutrophication. A green colour film like growth is generally seen in most of the lakes, ponds and other water bodies in the environment. This green colour transformation of the water reducing the transparency of water is scientifically the resultant of Eutrophication.
Plant life in water include algae, plankton, and various other types of plant. As these plants continue to grow in water resources, the supply of oxygen in the water decrease causing the depletion of the water resources completely. This process of depletion of the resources brings in an imbalance in the eco-system by destroying off several desirable species living in the water.
Some other effects of Eutrophication are listed below:
- The killing of fish and other amphibians.
- Growth of enormous of phytoplankton
- Reductions in harvestable fish and shellfish
- Change in the color and odor of the water
- Decreases in water transparency
- Increase in the toxicity
Various activities of humans like washing clothes near the water source, releasing of harmful chemicals into the river, sewage, the introduction of fertilizer by agricultural activities and many more activities makes the water polluted by introducing excess nutrients. Chemical compounds like acetic acid, nitrogen, phosphorus, and ammonia in water give rise to serious pollution problems which bring about eutrophication of lakes and rivers.
Eutrophication can occur naturally too, natural phenomena like the flooding of rivers or lakes have the ability to wash away the nutrient-rich soil from the land surrounding the water bodies. This nutrient-rich soil can promote the growth of algae in the aqueous body.
Eutrophication can be reduced by adopting various techniques like
- Improvement of the purifying performance of water treatment plants,
- Reduction of phosphorous in detergents manufacturing
- Planning a proper way of fertilization
- Adoption of active filters in the ecosystems to remove nitrogen and phosphorus present in the water
The Government along with citizens should limit their activities which causes the depletion of water resource since water is a fundamental vital natural resource. Refer BYJUS to know more on Eutrophication and the ways to reduce it.